Vitamins are the organic substance found in various foods which are required for specific reaction.
They act as regulator they are are destroyed by over cooking axcess boiling alcohol tobacoo coffee and many medicines.
- Direct/ primary —
- When diet is deficient of vitamin.
- Secondary/ conditioned —
- when the body in unable to utilize vitamin thought it is present in the diet.
There are two basic type of vitamins
- Fat soluble vitamins — A,D,E,K
- Water soluble vitamins — B- COMPLEX, C,P
Vitamin A/ retinol (C20H29OH)
Source:- Fish liver oil, butter, milk, egg yolk, carrot, papaya etc.
- It exists in the form of provitamin, carotene which on oxidation produce vitamins A in the liver by the action of enzymes carotenase.
- It is required for the growth of skeleton and connective tissue.
- In the retina it produces rodopsin and iodopsin.
Deficiency — Night blindness/ Nyctolopia/ Henerolopia — Disturbed rods.
- Xeropthalmia — (A2 Deficiency ) Lack of secretion of tears dry eyes which are more prone to infection
- Karatinisation of skin
- Effects the formation of soft skeleton.
- Hypervitaminosis — Thickening of long bones, painful joints.
Vitamin d/ Sunshine factor/ anti ricketic
Source:- sun cod/ halibut liver oil, ghee, butter, milk, egg etc.
- It exists as provitamin, ergosterol/7- Dehydrocholesterol, activated in the screen by exposure to UV rays
- and is carried to different organs for utilisation and storage in the liver.
- One international unit of vitamins D is actually 0.025ug of cholecalciferol.
- Cooking does not affect it.
- It also acts like parathormone that regulate Ca and P metabolism.
Vitamin E/ Tocopherol/ Antisterility Factor/ Beauty vitamin
Source:– plant oil, egg, muscle meat, liver, green leafy vegetable, cotton seed oil etc.
- Antioxidant properties as it prevents damage of membrane lipids and maintain normal membrane structure.
- It keeps skin health by preventing formation of unsaturated fatty acids.
- It is anti-sterility vitamin that prevents damage to germinal epithelium.
Ovulation and fertilization is affected.
The foetus development is abnormal is abnormal and also show muscular dystrophy in rats.
Hyper vitaminosis — Disorder in gonads and neuromuscular systems.